Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Innovation Management The Innovation Of Vaccines

Innovation management The innovation of vaccines Student number: 100090338 Word count: 1450 words Contents Introduction 1 Innovation types 1 The contribution of vaccines 2 Contribution of human history 2 Contribution of socio-economic 3 The disadvantages of vaccines 4 Side effects 4 To make experiments on animals 4 Conclusion 5 Introduction There are hundreds and thousands of infants, children and adults faced different type of diseases all around world, like whooping cough, polio,†¦show more content†¦However, new vaccines would be produced by improving existing vaccine and technology, which can maintain new vaccines competition. Hence, new vaccines would become incremental innovation. Incremental innovation means that for keep or improve product s competitive position and meet consumers demands by changing and improving existing product or product line, and generally, incremental innovation is used in the high technology business (BusinessDictionary, 2015). The contribution of vaccines There is no doubt that vaccine is absolutely successful innovation for human life, and there are 7 facts can provide evidence of this statement. Firstly, it makes thousands of children survived each year. Secondly, vaccine can destroy terrible diseases. Thirdly, chronic diseases, including some cancers, can be prevented by vaccines. Lastly, it saves a lot of money every year (Orenstein et al., 2014). Like Internet and computers, every successful invention has some benefits for human or social life, similarly, vaccine also has quantity of contributions. Contribution of human history Basically, vaccines changed the way that people used to fight against disease. Before vaccines have been produced, when people infected flu or smallpox, they used to seek simply medical or religious to intervene for their illnesses (Young, 2015). When a serious epidemic ofShow MoreRelatedInternal Weaknesses And Strengths Of Sanofi Pasteur1206 Words   |  5 Pagesorganizational growth to bring out his unique management style for one of the world’s top vaccine manufacturers. He has had various key positions over the past 22 years with the company, which contributes extensively to his accomplishments. In the United States, Latin America, and Canada business units, Braga is responsible for operations, oversees the annual revenue of over $3.5 billion, and serves as fundamental role in growth and global strategic management in the organization. Each year revenuesRead MoreThree Pillars986 Words   |  4 Pagesqualities that help support their end goal. Entering into the GCU Col lege of Business it is important to understand the three pillars that embody a graduate business student. The three pillars include servant leadership, entrepreneurial spirit, and innovation. Servant Leadership describes a leadership style that focuses on serving the needs of the team, client or community rather than the needs of the leader. â€Å"Characteristics of servant leaders include but are not limited to listening, empathy, awarenessRead MoreSanofi Aventis Swot Analysis1750 Words   |  7 PagesNovember 2012 The Business Environment â€Å" Sanofi-Aventis, between innovation and acquisition† Wafi Djebbar Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 1. Introduction 3 2.Sanofi Description and Background......†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.......4 3. Sanofi Business Environment 4 3.1. Political Factors 4 3.2. Economic Factors 5 3.3. Social Factors 7 3.4. Technological Factors 7 3.5. Environmental Factors 8 3.6. Legal Factors†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦8Read MoreEssay about Case Memo: Merck Global Health and Access to Medicines604 Words   |  3 PagesSpecial Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. 1 The ‘‘Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines’’ include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessiveRead MoreGsk: Internal Innovation Strategy1901 Words   |  8 Pagesexcel in internal innovation through research on eight therapy areas- biopharmaceuticals, immune-inflammation, infectious diseases, metabolic pathways, neuroscience, oncology, ophthalmology and respiratory. To address these areas the firm in 2008 created 70 Discovery Performance Unit (DPUs) for future growth of the company. These 70 DPUs can affect the implementation effort in following ways to achieve success in the field of internal innovation which result in development of vaccines for the dise asesRead MoreGenomics - Disruptive Technologies : Creating A New Healthcare Paradigm905 Words   |  4 Pagesparadigms of healthcare systems Innovation and medicine go together. In modern times medicine has been transformed by waves of discovery that have brought marvels like antibiotics, vaccines and heart stents. Disruptive technologies have played a significant role through the ages in leapfrogging the paradigms of healthcare systems. The advent of radiology, for instance, introduced a field of medicine, which transformed the practice of healthcare. On the other hand innovations such as home blood glucoseRead MoreDesign Thinking And Project Management866 Words   |  4 PagesDesign Thinking and Project Management Manage product teams which is incorporated usability and design methodologies into the design The business world is rapidly changing where design is changing. Design thinking works is not just visual design. Introduction to the design and project management Design thinking is enormously increasing in the organizations. Most leading organizations like Apple, Coca-Cola, IBM, GE, Nike are helping the project managers to build strong knowledge on design, thinkingRead MoreThe Terms Of Return On Investment Essay1705 Words   |  7 Pages Some of the objectives Pfizer aims to accomplish include: developing new therapies for inflammation and immunology, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, neuroscience and pain treatments. The corporations’ current strategy is dependent upon: innovation, value maximization, social respect, and cultural ownership. Pfizer’s policies are designed to meet the expectations of corporate directives and regulatory compliance. Being a transparent organization, Pfizer’s mission, objectives, strategiesRead More Pfizer Animal Health Essay1348 Words   |  6 Pagesgrowth and internal synergy. Pfizer has more new animal health products in its research pipeline today than at any other time in its history. Their products include anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, and anti-parasitic pharmaceutical medicines, vaccines and feed additives. These products are used by cattle, swine, and poultry industries, as well as, veterinarians serving both the livestock and pet markets. The animal health segment of Pfizer accounts for approximately 10% of their total revenuesRead MoreThe Causes And Implications Of Medical Disasters In Brazil1606 Words   |  7 Pagesanalysis. The simplest most obvious and scientifically sound explanation for Zika’s deadly mutation should have been known to, and reported by, the Times reporters. This evidence of diversionary propaganda embroils Times owners, and GM mosquito vaccine enterprise investors in Oxitec. The consumer fraud in selling and concealing risky biotechnologies is a commercial crime. The deadly experiment gone awry now threatens billions of families that may birth millions of brain damaged children. The social

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Bloodiest Battle By William Manchester - 1245 Words

William Manchester, author of â€Å"The Bloodiest Battle†, utilizes personal war-stories throughout the essay to portray not only the challenging hardships of war but the vivid descriptions of human-to-human annihilation, and how that affected him emotionally. Manchester’s purpose was to show the audience that two countries (America and Japan) could make peace, but the individuals who fought it still struggle, including himself. He portrays the idea that there is more behind the victory of the war. Throughout the essay, Manchester reminisces about the battle between the Japanese on the island Okinawa. Just from the choice of words the author used, you can get a feel of the sound, and the look of the area that is being written about: â€Å"†¦the anchor of this line was a knoll of coral and volcanic ash, which the Marines christened Sugar Loaf Hill† (Manchester 294). In this quote, Manchester utilizes visual imagery to give the reader an imagination of the en vironment he had to deal with just five weeks into the war. â€Å"A knoll of coral and volcanic ash† represents the emptiness of the land that was once filled with marine soldiers. It focuses on the fact that many soldiers risked their lives just to fight for the freedom of America. He immortalizes on the idea that soldiers who died in this battle should not be forgotten. Manchester’s description of living in the combat zone is quite powerful and heart-rending. He immediately draws the reader into his everyday battlefield experienceShow MoreRelated First World War Poetry Essay2753 Words   |  12 Pages The First World War, or The Great War, was fought over the period August 1914 to November 1918. Although this was fought in many locations, and on a number of continents, the Western Front was the scene of some of the most important and bloodiest battles of the War. The Western Front was a series of trenches running through Belgium and France that formed the front line between the Allied and German forces. Many of the WW1 poets saw action on the Western Front. The War was dehumanising

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analyzing How Internal And External Forces Affect...

Administrating a college is different from running a business firm. Driven by a clear profit generation goal, business administrators utilize management instruments to make rational decisions linearly. Contrastingly, college administrator will often encounter issues of shared governance, unclear mission, dynamic organizational culture, and loosely coupled structure, which make the decision making process challenging and time-consuming (Birnbaum, 1988). Due to the unique nature of college administration, Birnbaum suggests that college leaders should identify various organizational models that function in problem solving, and then respond to various dilemmas with sensible decision making (1988). In the book How Colleges Work, Birnbaum†¦show more content†¦Equality, cohesiveness, and democracy are three fundamental features for such academic setting. Equality lies in the decision making process: equal right is granted to each individual, who has equal power to influence the outcome. The outcome is achieved through consensus, an agreement advocated by most of the members. Equal governing status constructs the cohesiveness in the organization. Sharing advance degree of equivalent level and similar background, faculties interact intimately and frequently in small groups, fostering a unifying culture. The common goal of pursuing academic excellence bonds faculties together, which leads to a democratic, nonlinear hierarchy. Administrators of the collegial model are elected from the faculty, who will act as agents and share governance with the peers. Lacking professional managing experience, administrators are expected to conform to norms and exemplify the common value in leadership behavior. Birnbaum indicates that it is an ideal model for administrating academic institution, however, it can be less efficient in larger size institutions. The cohesiveness can be a blessing, and it also can be a curse. Environment Interaction Normed under a cohesive culture, the internal personnel management of the collegium is rather tightly coupled and stable. Administrators and

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Creative short stories Essay Example For Students

Creative short stories Essay MacBethsTransformation from Brave Macbeth to This dead ButcherWilliam Shakespeares play MacBeth tells the story of Macbeth change from a bravegeneral, to a vicious murderer. At the start of the play Macbeth is acknowledge by theking as a brave and honourable general, after he heard of Macbeths great victory in thebattlefield. He promotes Macbeth to Thane of Cawdor, which was still unknown by bothMacbeth and Banquo when they came across the three weird sisters. All Hail Macbeth, hail to thee Thane of Cawdor (I:III:51)All Hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter (I:III:53)Macbeth was sceptical about these prophecies, however developed faith in them whenRoss, following the kings orders titles him Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth does not let on to anyone about his ever-increasing desire to become king. If chance will have me king, why chance will crown me. (I:III:154)Macbeth tells his lady about the prophecies and she is instantly enthusiastic about theprospect of Macbeth becoming king. Great Glamis, Worthy Cawdor! Greater than both by the all-hail hereafter!Thy letters have transported me beyond this ignorant present and I feel now thefuture is an instant. (I:V:58)Macbeths desire turns to an obsession and with lady Macbeth; they make plans toassassinate king Duncan. Macbeths strong conscience overpowers his obsession andhe resigns from the fatal ploy. He sees a vision of a dagger drifting in the direction ofDuncans room, which convinces him to take part in the sinful act of murder. False face must hide what the false heart doth know. (I:VII:92)Macbeth is discomforted and confused after the murder of Duncan, but does notexpress his emotions to anyone. Malcom and Donalbain Duncans sons in fear for theirlives flee the country, leaving Macbeth to assume the role as king. After reigning as king for a little while, Macbeth becomes concerned with the continuationof his supremacy. The weird sisters spoke of Banquo as being lesser but greater, not sohappy yet much happier, Thou shalt get kings though be none (I:III:68)This plays on Macbeths mind for a while and his desire proves to be to strong. His guiltyconscience is taken over and in an attempt to control fate Macbeth devises a plan to killboth Banquo and his son Fleance. Macbeth is disturbed when he receives word that Banquo had been murdered, butFleance escaped. Macbeth begins to hallucinate and is constantly hunted by a ghost ofBanquo. During these hallucinations in the presence of many noblemen, Macbethreveals emotions and thoughts from deep down inside. Many noblemen now suspect himas the murderer of Duncan and Banquo. He becomes isolated from many peopleincluding Lady Macbeth. Macbeths desire to reign as king has led him to kill. His obsession drives him to revisit the weird sisters, to obtain the answers to hisquestions. MacBeths fatal flaw is shown clearly when the image of Eight kings passbefore him, with the Ghost of Banquo following. What is this so? (IV:I:134)Ay sir, all this is so; but why stands MacBeth so amazedly (IV:I:138)It shows that he has yet to realise that he cannot control fate, and Banquo will father aline of kings no matter what he does to try and prevent it from happening. The first of the second set of prophecies Beware Macduff! Beware the Thane of Fife. (IV:I:77)almost instantly became apparent when Lennox brings word that Macduff has fled toEngland. The bluntness of his orders shows how selfish and arrogant he has become. .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d , .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d .postImageUrl , .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d , .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d:hover , .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d:visited , .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d:active { border:0!important; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d:active , .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud0470db38781142e83d380788428068d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Compare / Contrast - Baseball EssaySeize upon Fife; give to the edge o the sword, his wife, his babies, and all theunfortunate souls that trace him to his line. (IV:I:165)MacBeth is prepared for the invasion by Macduff and Malcom, his overwhelming pridecauses him to feel fearless of Macduff, and is filled with confidence before they confronteach other, but when they do eventually meet MacBeth does not want to fight. He hasrealised how ruthless he has been in his actions and how guilty he is of slaughteringmany innocent people to benefit him. How selfish and pretentious he has been in hisattempt to control fate. He is eventually slained after being to proud to concede defea tand having to kneel before his successor, the son of his first victim, Malcom. MacBeths transformation from a brave general to a dead murderer, was not gradual, hisoverwhelming pride and his inability to realise he could not play the part of God broughtabout

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Job Satisfaction and Job Performance free essay sample

The attitudes, ideas, feelings and interests of a child are influenced by the organization of his/her family, thinking of parents and customs of the society. Personality of parents, their education and their behaviour towards the children is the basis of development of attitudes. Teachers having favourable attitude towards their profession are generally successful, properly adjusted and well satisfied with their job. Conducting a study on the secondary school teachers of  Bangalore  city Umme (1999) concluded that attitude towards teaching correlated positively and significantly with their job-satisfaction. OBJECTIVES 1. To compare the job satisfaction of teacher educators with their attitude towards teaching; 2. To compare the job satisfaction of male teacher educators with their attitude towards teaching; 3. To compare the job satisfaction of female teacher educators with their attitude towards teaching. HYPOTHESES 1. There is positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and attitude towards teaching among teacher educators; 2. There is positive and signification relationship between job satisfaction and attitude towards teaching among male teacher educators; 3. We will write a custom essay sample on Job Satisfaction and Job Performance or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page There is positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and attitude towards teaching among female teacher educators. METHOD The study was descriptive survey type. Sample The sample comprised of 250 teacher educators with 100 male and 150 female teachers educators from 20 Colleges of Education affiliated to  Panjab  University,  Chandigarh,  Guru  Nanak  Dev  University,  Amritsar  and  PunjabiUniversity,  Patiala. Tools 1. Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS) by Amar Singh and T. R. Sharma (1999) revised version; 2. Teacher Attitude Inventory by S. P. Ahluwalia (1998) revised version. Statistical Techniques Product moment correlation technique was used to find the relation between job satisfaction and attitude towards teaching. RESULTS Product moment correlations were worked out between job satisfaction and attitude towards teaching. The value of correlation between job satisfaction and attitude towards teaching was 0. 0456, which was not significant. This leads to the partial confirmation of hypotheses 1. Hence, job satisfaction of teacher educators thus is positively but not significantly related to attitude towards teaching. The value of correlation between job satisfaction and attitude towards teaching was 0. 123, which was positive but not significant. Thus, the hypothesis 2 was partially accepted. Hence, job satisfaction of male teacher educators is positively but not significantly related to attitude towards teaching. The value of correlation between job satisfaction and attitude towards teaching was 0. 0034 which was positive but not significant, which leads to the partial confirmation of hypothesis 3. Thus, relation between job satisfaction and attitude towards teaching of female teacher educators is positive but not significant. CONCLUSION The job satisfaction of teacher educators was positively but not significantly related to their attitude towards teaching. The job satisfaction of male and female teacher educators was also positively but not significantly related to their attitude towards teaching. REFERENCE Umme, K. (1999) A factor analytic study of job involvement of secondary school teachers in  Bangalore  city. Experiments in Education  28, 9 , 159-163, September. Teachers are increasingly dissatisfied with their jobs, with budget cuts, larger classroom sizes and increased levels of stress all contributing to the problem, according to a nationwide survey released Thursday. The  annual MetLife Survey of the American Teacher  shows the lowest level of job satisfaction among teachers since the group began the survey in 1985. According to the survey, which was conducted toward the end of 2012, teacher satisfaction has declined 23 percentage points from four years earlier, and is down 5 percentage points from 2011. Weve seen a continuous decline in teacher satisfaction, Dana Markow, vice president of youth and education research for pollster Harris Interactive,  told the Huffington Posts Joy Resmovits. Harris Interactive conducted the poll for MetLife. The survey shows that half (51 percent) of teachers report feeling under great stress several days a week, which is an increase of 15 percentage points over 1985. The survey does not break down responses by state, but its no secret that teachers in Wisconsin have been under stress. Many joined massive protests at the Capitol in 2011 when Gov. Scott Walker introduced Act 10 —  his bill that stripped collective bargaining rights from most public employees. The combination of diminished bargaining rights and reduced funds for education in Walkers first biennial budget led to increased employee benefit payments,  a wave of teacher retirements  and also  put many school districts under financial pressure. The combination of that, plus increasing demands for school and teacher accountability, led one teacher in Whitefish Bay to tearfully tell her school board last week that she is resigning. In a  widely shared story on Whitefish Bay Now, high school math teacher Christine Kiefer was quoted saying: I love teaching kids and I love the kids families and I love my colleagues and I love Whitefish Bay, but I cannot wait any longer. I cant stay at a job that sacrifices all my time for my own family — at least two hours every school night and between six to 12 hours every weekend — time after the bell rings, time that produces such good results when there is no good faith effort on the part of the district to pay what I am worth, to pay me what you would probably have to pay an equivalent replacement for me. In the article, a Whitefish Bay School Board member told Kiefer they have little power to improve matters because so many key decisions are made at the state level. Two years ago, the article said, the state cut the districts funding by $2 million. Our hands are tied, School Board Member Cheryl Maranto said. I know the reason we are surviving is because of what happened to your pay and benefits. Read more:  http://host. madison. com/news/local/education/local_schools/job-satisfaction-for-teachers-at-record-low-survey-shows/article_063b0866-7c45Abstract:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Work plays a prominent role in our lives. It occupies more time than any other single activity and it provides the economic basis for our lifestyle. Satisfaction  with work or  job  is generally defined as the employee’s general attitude towards his or her  job, management and the organization. It is often believed that teaching is a noble profession and  teachers  enter the teaching profession for intrinsic factors which encompass the opportunities for professional advancement, personal and professional challenges, professional autonomy, interactions with colleagues and interactions with students. The present study was conducted to understand whether the perception of  job  satisfaction  among  teachers  is affected by the type  oforganization (private versus government) and the gender (male versus female). The findings  of  this study indicated that the government school  teachers  appeared to be more satisfied than the private school  teachers, though there was no significant difference in the  job  satisfaction  of  male and female teachers. -11e2-bf7c-001a4bcf887a. html#ixzz2MToVGRxsJOB SATISFACTION IN TEACHERS JADE A. YEZZI, AND  DAVIDLESTER [pic] Read More:  http://www. amsciepub. om/doi/abs/10. 2466/pr0. 2000. 87. 3. 776Teachers decision participation, school climate, sense of efficacy, and  job  satisfaction  have increased in importance in recent years. Using a national data set, the authors of the present study explored the dimensionality of these variables and their interrelationships. Regression analyses were performed to pre dict  teachers sense of efficacy and  job  satisfaction  from decision participation and school climate. Aspects of school climate emerged as stronger predictors of  jobsatisfaction  than did the elements of decision participation. Strongest among these school climate dimensions were the lack of obstacles to teaching and principal leadership. Similarly, the best predictors of  teachers sense of efficacy were the dimensions of school climate referred to as faculty communication and the lack of obstacles to teaching. Contrary to predictions, dimensions of decision participation didPresent thought and action relating to satisfaction and motivation of teachers appear to he based on the assumption that job factors which satisfy teachers and job factors which dissatisfy teachers are arranged on a conceptual continuum. This paper tests an alternate assumption which was proposed by Frederick Herzbcrg and his associates. Herzberg suggests that job factors which satisfy workers and job factors which dissatisfy workers are not arranged on a conceptual continuum but are mutually exclusive. The findings of the study reported here revealed that some factors, reported by teachers as contributing to their job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, were polar in a positive direction and other factors were polar in a negative direction. Achievement, recognition and responsibility were factors which contributed predominantly to teacher job satisfaction. Interpersonal relations (students), interpersonal relations (peers), â€Å"supervision technical†, school policy and administration, unfairness, status and personal life were factors which contributed predominantly to teacher dissatisfaction. Further, the satisfaction factors identified for teachers tend to focus on the work itself and the dissatisfaction factors tend to focus on the conditions of work. The results of this study tend to support the universality of Herzbergs findings. not emerge as best predictors of either  teachers sense of efficacy orjob  satisfaction. Present thought and action relating to satisfaction and motivation of teachers appear to he based on the assumption that job factors which satisfy teachers and job factors which dissatisfy teachers are arranged on a conceptual continuum. This paper tests an alternate assumption which was proposed by Frederick Herzbcrg and his associates. Herzberg suggests that job factors which satisfy workers and job factors which dissatisfy workers are not arranged on a conceptual continuum but are mutually exclusive. The findings of the study reported here revealed that some factors, reported by teachers as contributing to their job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, were polar in a positive direction and other factors were polar in a negative direction. Achievement, recognition and responsibility were factors which contributed predominantly to teacher job satisfaction. Interpersonal relations (students), interpersonal relations (peers), â€Å"supervision technical†, school policy and administration, unfairness, status and personal life were factors which contributed predominantly to teacher dissatisfaction. Further, the satisfaction factors identified for teachers tend to focus on the work itself and the dissatisfaction factors tend to focus on the conditions of work. The results of this study tend to support the universality of Herzbergs findings. This report describes U. S. K-12 teachers satisfaction with teaching as a career and identifies some workplace-related factors associated with satisfaction. Factors examined include school and workplace characteristics, teacher background, salary, and other benefits. Results are presented in three sections. The first section describes satisfaction levels of teachers with different background characteristics, teaching in different types of schools and school systems, with different perceptions of workplace conditions, and receiving different levels of compensation. The second section contrasts characteristics of most and least satisfied teachers. Using multivariate analysis, the third section describes the strength of association between teacher satisfaction and those workplace conditions open to policy changes after accounting for other relevant teacher and school characteristics. Findings indicate that working conditions related to satisfaction are administrative support and leadership, student behavior, and school atmosphere. Compensation is only modestly related to teacher satisfactioSignificantly, job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This study assessed the differences and relationship between the level of teachers’ job satisfaction, motivation and their teaching performance in Rivers State of Nigeria. A questionnaire titled ‘TEJOSAMOQ’ was used to collect data for the study. While the data for the study was analyzed using multiple statistical procedures: mean point value, standard deviation, and variance, t-test of significance and One-way-analysis of variance (ANOVA). The survey results revealed that teacher related sources of job satisfaction seem to have a greater impact on teaching performance, as teachers are also dissatisfiedwith the educational policies and administration, pay and fringe benefits, material rewards and advancement. Background to the Study The relevance of job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world. They probably rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of educational success and performance. Professional knowledge, skills and center competencies occur when one feels effective in one’s behavior. In other words, professional knowledge, skills and competencies can be seen when one is taking on and mastering challenging tasks directed at educational success and performance (Filak Sheldon, 2003). The above factors are closely similar to efficacy, and, of course, it is well known that many teachers lose or fail to develop self-efficacy within educational settings (Dweck, 1999). In addition, needs satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. While almost every teacher works in order to satisfy his or her needs in life, he or she constantly agitates for need satisfaction. Job satisfaction in this context is the ability of the teaching job to meet teachers’ needs and improve their job/teaching performance. However, it is assumed that teachers’ agitations and demands are beyond the resources of the Ministry of Education or the government. As a result, the government in Nigeria and the Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT) are in a constant stand-off over the increase in salaries, benefits, and improvements in working conditions of teachers. The federal and state governments have argued that the present economic realities in the country cannot sustain the demanded increase in salaries, benefits, and improvements in working conditions. Specifically they argue that teachers’ demands are beyond the governmentresources. Another problem is the government’s position concerning the job performance of the teachers; they accuse the teachers of negligence, laziness, purposeful lethargy, and lack of dedication and zeal to work. They further argue that teachers’ level of efficiency and effectiveness does not necessitate the constant request for salary increase, incentives and better working conditions. While teachers on their part argue that the existing salary structure, benefits and working conditions do not satisfy their basic needs in as much as other sectors of the economy have bigger salary structure, better motivation and enhanced working conditions. They feel Nigeria’s economy is not properly balanced, hence, their demands. The teachers’ argument is in line with Adams’ (1963) equity theory of motivation. Adams’ Equity Theory calls for a fair balance to be struck between employees’ inputs (e. g. , hard work, skill levels, tolerance, and enthusiasm) and employees’ outputs (e. g. , salary, benefits, and intangibles such asrecognition). According to the theory’s finding, a fair balance serves to ensure a strong and productive relationship with the employees, with the overall result being satisfied, thus motivated employees. The theory is built-on the belief that employees become demotivated, both in relation to their job and their employer, if they feel as though their inputs are greater than the outputs. Employees can be expected to respond to this is different ways, including de-motivation (generally to the extent the employee perceives the disparity between the inputs and the outputs exist), reduced effort, becoming disgruntled, or, in more extreme cases, perhaps even disruptive (http://www. mindtools. com/pages/article/newLDR_96. tm) Teachers are expected to render a very high job performance, and the Ministry of Education is always curious regarding the job performance of its teachers. Also, the Ministry of Education demands a very high measure of loyalty, patriotism, dedication, hard work and commitment from its teachers (Ubom Joshua, 2004). Similarly, the roles and contexts of educations’ motivational methods and tools cannot be underemphasized because high motivation enhances productivit y which is naturally in the interests of all educational systems (Ololube 2004, 2005). The overall purpose of the study was to explore and explain job satisfaction and teachers’ work motivation in relation to Nigerian teachers’ needs satisfaction for school effectiveness. The primary purpose of the present research was to test these ideas in the education environment, using teachers’ job and need satisfaction ratings as the dependent variables and teachers’ background information as the independent variables. To a large extent, this work is built on the theoretical frameworks of scholars like Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959) and Maslow (1943, 1970). The research hypotheses and objectives of this research were made to order for the study of Nigerian teachers’ job satisfaction, with the view of ascertaining the degree to which intrinsic and extrinsic factors of motivation impact them in their work situation. The relevance and intrigue of this research may be seen in how far it supports or refutes prior claims about job satisfaction and motivation amongst Nigerian teachers and, if possible, teachers around the world. Prominently, Nigerian teachers referred to in this study are secondary school teachers. In addition, the job and needs satisfactions of the Nigerian teachers werecompared with the findings from similar studies both within and outside the field of education. For example, Adams (1963), Denga (1996), Filak and Sheldon (2003), Hoppock (1993), MaKenna (2000), Michaelowa (2002), Reis et al. (2000), Robbins (1998), Roe (1970), Sheldon et al. (2001), Sheldon, Ryan, and Reis (1996), Ubom (2001), Ubom and Joshua (2004), Vroom (1964), and Whawo (1993) were consulted in order to establish the extent of variability or association that may exist across their findings. Finally, the empirical findings from this study would help in describing or explaining the pivotal role of motivation on the needs satisfaction of Nigerian teachers’ in line with other theories that are reviewed in this work. However, the emphasis of this research is on the need-based or content theories, with a glance at process and reinforcement theories. The questionnaire developed and used to gather data for this study borrows from similar works on motivation and need satisfaction by authors like Maslow (1943, 1970), Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959), Ifinedo (2003) and many others. In particular, this research paper is written for education planners, policy makers, educators, academics and human resource development and strategic managersinterested in empirical information methods to conceptualise the issue raised in this study and provide them with useful suggestions that might help them improve secondary schooling in Nigeria. Multiple audiences exist for any text, thus it is my intention that the academic community will also find this paper a useful addition to school effectiveness and school improvement literature. Theoretical Perspectives and Literature Review Employee job satisfaction and motivation can be studied through several broad approaches vis-a-vis content or need based theories, process theories and reinforcement theories. However, the term employee motivation is a complex and difficult term to define; therefore a precise definition of this concept is elusive as the notion comprises the characteristics of individual and situation as well as the perception of that situation by the individual (Ifinedo 2003; Rosenfeld Wilson 1999). An organization’s liveliness, whether public or private, comes from the motivation of its employees, although their abilities play just as crucial a role in determining their work performance their motivation (Lewis, Goodman Fandt 1995). Golembiewski (1973, p. 597) refers to motivation as the degree of readiness of an organization to pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces inducing the degree of readiness. To Kelly (1974, p. 279), motivation has to do with the forces that maintain and alter the direction, quality and intensity of behavior. According to Hoy and Miskel (1987, p. 176), employee motivation is the complex forces, drives, needs, tension states, or other mechanisms that start and maintain voluntary activity directed towards the achievement of personal goals. In short, Dessler (2001) defined motivation as the intensity of a person’s desire to engage in some activity. From the above definitions some issues are brought to mind that deal with what starts and energizes human behavior, how those forces are directed and sustained as well as the outcomes they bring about (performance). It follows therefore that there is a relationship between motivation and job satisfaction, which is paramount in any organization’s existence. However, the concepts of motivation and job satisfaction are often confused with one another. Peretomode (1991) citing Gibson, et al. pointed out that the two terms are related but are not synonymous. They acknowledged that job satisfaction is one part of the motivational process. While motivation is primarily concerned with goal-directed behavior, job satisfaction refers to the fulfillment acquired by experiencing various job activities and rewards. It is possible that an employee may display low motivation from the organization’s perspective yet enjoy every aspect of the job. This state represents high job satisfaction. Peretomode (1991, p. 113) also argued that a highly motivated employee might also be dissatisfied with every aspect of his or her job. Ifinedo (2003) demonstrated that a motivated worker is easy to spot by his or her agility, dedication, enthusiasm, focus, zeal, and general performance and contribution to organizational objectives and goals. Need-based Approach or Content theory Several factors are believed to influence a person’s desire to perform work or behave in a certain way. The need-based theories explained these desires; they explained motivation primarily as a phenomenon that occurs intrinsically, or within an individual. We can widely recognize two need-based theorists and their theories: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg et al. ’s two factor theory. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow’s (1943, 1970) need-based theory of motivation is the most

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Brief History and Geography of Tibet

Brief History and Geography of Tibet The Tibetan Plateau is a huge region of southwestern China consistently above 4000 meters. This region that was a thriving independent kingdom that began in the eighth century and developed into an independent country in the twentieth century is now under the firm control of China. Persecution of the Tibetan people and their practice of Buddhism is widely reported. History Tibet closed its borders to foreigners in 1792, keeping the British of India (Tibets southwestern neighbor) at bay until the British desire for a trade route with China caused them to take Tibet by force in 1903. In 1906 the British and Chinese signed a peace treaty that gave Tibet to the Chinese. Five years later, the Tibetans expelled the Chinese and declared their independence, which lasted until 1950. In 1950, shortly after Mao Zedongs communist revolution, China invaded Tibet. Tibet pleaded for assistance from the United Nations, the British, and the newly independent Indians for assistance to no avail. In 1959 a Tibetan uprising was squelched by the Chinese and the leader of the theocratic Tibetan government, the Dalai Lama, fled to Dharamsala, India and created a government-in-exile. China administered Tibet with a firm hand, prosecuting Tibetan Buddhists and destroying their places of worship, especially during the time of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). After Maos death in 1976, the Tibetans gained limited autonomy although many of the Tibetan government officials installed were of Chinese nationality. The Chinese government has administered Tibet as the Autonomous Region of Tibet (Xizang) since 1965. Many Chinese have been financially encouraged to move to Tibet, diluting the effect of the ethnic Tibetans. Its likely that the Tibetans will become a minority in their land within a few years. The total population of Xizang is approximately 2.6 million. Additional uprisings occurred throughout the next few decades and martial law was imposed upon Tibet in 1988. The Dalai Lamas efforts to work with China toward solving problems to bring peace to Tibet earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989. Through the work of the Dalai Lama, the United Nations has called upon China to consider giving the Tibetan people a right to self-determination. In recent years, China has been spending billions to improve the economical outlook for Tibet by encouraging tourism and trade to the region. The Potala, the former seat of the Tibetan government and the home of the Dalai Lama is a major attraction in Lhasa. Culture The Tibetan culture is an ancient one that includes the Tibetan language and a specific Tibetan style of Buddhism. Regional dialects vary across Tibet so the Lhasa dialect has become the Tibetan lingua franca. Industry Industry was non-existent in Tibet prior to the Chinese invasion and today small industries are located in the capital of Lhasa (2000 population of 140,000) and other towns. Outside of cities, the indigenous Tibetan culture is comprised primarily of nomads, farmers (barley and root vegetables are primary crops), and forest dwellers. Due to the cold dry air of Tibet, grain can be stored for up to 50 to 60 years and butter (yak butter is the perennial favorite) can be stored for a year. Disease and epidemics are rare on the dry high plateau, which is surrounded by the worlds tallest mountains, including Mount Everest in the south. Geography Though the plateau is rather dry and receives an average of 18 inches (46 cm) of precipitation each year, the plateau is the source for major rivers of Asia, including the Indus River. Alluvial soils comprise the terrain of Tibet. Due to the high altitude of the region, the seasonal variation in temperature is rather limited and the diurnal (daily) variation is more important- the temperature in Lhasa can range as much as -2 F to 85 F (-19 C to 30 C). Sandstorms and hailstorms (with hail of tennis-ball size) are problems in Tibet. (A special classification of spiritual magicians was once paid to ward off the hail.) Thus, the status of Tibet remains in question. Will the culture be diluted by the influx of Chinese or will Tibet once again become Free and independent?

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Answering a question Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Answering a question - Assignment Example The sentences have been very badly constructed. While reading at the first glance it seems the writer will send the most important work to whom he is interacting with by the 25th of March but after close reading I penetrated that your most important work is just a title of a book. The correct order to write the date is not Mar.25 but either 25 March 2013 or March 25, 2013. The date should be written in full with the year. It is better to always use full form of words in English. We’re, don’t, didn’t etc are not acceptable in writing formal English so short forms must be avoided. The two commas in the second last sentence have been wrongly used. Such commas are used when the word just before the first comma needs to be defined or explained. Then again the vocabulary is not right. The word patronage does simply not makes any sense in the last sentence. Though indenting is optional but one should use it to indicate a new paragraph (Jones). I would like to thank you for the order you placed for the six DVD’s. Due to a lot of work lately I will not be able to hold a meeting with you but feel free to email me if you have questions in mind. I will send you the DVD’s for Performance Appraisal that really improves Performance, Hiring Employees and Your most Important Work by the 25th of March. You will also receive a booklet with your purchase that will contain instructions on how to go about using the DVD. We want you to be 100% satisfied with the products you receive from us. These booklets might also come handy when your organization plans to conduct a workshop or house seminar. Inside the package you will also find our new catalogue that includes information about fifty new DVDs on training. Like with all our training materials, these DVDs carry a 30 day no question asked return policy. Thank you for your order. We very much appreciate your interest in working with